Almond fertilization is designed on a particular type of almond cultivation (classic or SHD) and for a particular parcel. Prior to planting, sampling and chemical analysis for existing nutrients is performed. After the application of the fertilization program, a leaf-diagnosis is made in mid-July to assess the result. Producers should keep archives of fertilization applications for each parcel. These records should include the types and quantities of fertilizers, vegetation quality and production height. This data is used to make future decisions about the management of the orchard.
Nutrients are applied to the rhizosphere at the time they are needed for cultivation and in quantities that will not be flushed out of the root area. The first period of application is spring when we have intense vegetative growth. The following applications are carried out throughout the growing season and also after harvesting at smaller doses. The nutrient needs depend on the yield per hectare. An overproductive year takes away more ground nutrients than a modest year. The table below contains a general almond fertilization program for Nitrogen (N), Potassium(K), Boron (B) and Zinc (Zn) in almonds that are in productive age. On soils with extreme texture, this fertilization must be modified accordingly. In sandy soils, applications with nitrogen should become denser and in smaller doses. In heavy soils, the nitrogen can be applied once a month.
A very important tool for measuring the performance of the almond fertilization program and for diagnosing deficiencies and toxicity. It is recommended to take leaf samples every year. For proper sampling, you should:
• Take samples from late July to mid-August
• From vigorous shoots that are more than 1.5 meters from the ground
• Fully developed leaves must be selected
• Collect 4-10 leaves per tree from 10-20 trees per orchard
• Do not choose leaves that have been sprayed with foliar fertilizers
• The sample must reach the laboratory within 24 hours
Minimum values for satisfactory tree growth and production. The suggested values are those required for ideal growth. These values must be part of the phylogeny. The following table lists the minimum and recommended values.
High Density panting of almond trees – Self-fertile varieties and fertilization:
In terms of high-density planting of almond trees and self-fertile varieties, fertilization varies. The combination of these two factors increases the volume of production. It is self-evident that the amount of fertilizer should be increased accordingly. Particularly for high-density planting and in association with the rootstocks that have been used, a program rich in trace elements should be followed.